- A. The discovery
- B. Personality's characteristics
- C. Dominant Gene
- D. Total Hormonal Disorder
- E. Nutritional Needs
- F. Enterotypes
- G. Diseases
- H. The prospects of discovery
A. The discovery of the three human Types
George Paschalidis begun his research, in 2002, by interviewing and observing people with and without health issues, coming from different regions and ethnicities. More than 20,000 people were examined, of whom over 15,000 were patients. Furthermore, the first degree relatives of these participants were also studied, raising the specimen number to 140.000 people.
Through empirical evaluation initially and statistic scientific methodology (interview, observation and questionnaire), consequently, he was led to the conclusion that people ailing from the same diseases shared common personality traits, stress reactions and adjustability, processing of information and emotional regulation, which were reflecting the function of certain brain areas responsible for thought, behaviour and emotion.
Thus, the diseases manifested in people who presented the above mentioned common characteristics.
This classification showed him that there are three ways of responding to stimuli and three ways of emotional and cognitive processing, corresponding to different ways of brain function.
Through this study, he discovered the existence of three unique and clearly distinct Types of humans, which he named A, B and C. He mapped the characteristics of each Type and gradually developed the Tri-Anthropo-Type Paschalidis Model.
By analyzing the Model, he reveals to us our “blueprint”, and provides us with a detailed “instruction manual” of our organisms, a guide to well-being.
The three human Types originate from differentiations in the three brain sections of the limbic system, and their cooperating sections. These three areas of the limbic system where the differentiated cerebral function is located are the following:
- The area including the temporal cortex, the occipital cortex, the orbitofrontal, the entorrhinal cortex, the coronary lobe and association cortex, with which A Type over-functions.
- The area including the amygdala, the prefrontal cortex, the cingulate gyrus and parietal cortex, with which B Type over-functions.
- The area including the hippocampus, gyrus parahippocampalis, the limbic cortex and multimodal association cortex, with which C Type over-functions.
G. Paschalidis developed a system of tools and methods of analysis, recognition and appreciation of the characteristics of each human Type and detection of biological and psychological markers for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The Paschalidis System of Empirically based Analysis, Identification and Assessment of the Three Human Personality Types and their biological and psychological Markers include the development of the following tools and methods:
- The Three Human Type Model Questionnaire (THUPETMQ)
- Global Assessment of Stress Response Inventory (GASRI)
- Stress Influence Scale (SIS)
- Disease Tables depending on the Human Personality Type
- Alphabetical List of Diseases and Personality Human Type
- Correlation Table of Stress Degree with Symptoms and Diseases
- The Form of Laboratory and Imaging studies (filled in per semester): Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Blood Tests, Electrocardiogram, Metal Testing
- Therapeutic Results of the Three Human Personality Type Model Rating Scale
- Nutritional Habits Questionnaire
G. Paschalidis collaborated with medical research groups, in order to verify The Three Human Types and to clarify the neurobiological, genetic and patho-physiological factors that determine the function of each Type.
Studies of more than 3,000 articles, review and synthesis of international literature on neuro-anatomy, neurobiology, neurochemistry, neuroendocrinology, neuro-genetic, neuro-immunology, neuro-gastroenterology, pathophysiology and psychiatry were the basis of the translational research that led to the confirmation of the Model of The Three Human Types. Research and translation of the data from the literature review have been supplemented with prospective studies of clinical and healthy groups, with case studies of specific disorders or symptoms and studies of groups with the same diseases.
B. Human Types and personality’s characteristics
|A Type||B Type||C Type|
C. Dominant Gene
The Three Human Types are classified according to:
- Personality traits
- Brain structure and function
- Skeletal structure
- Biometal & Vitamin assimilation
- Predisposition and manifestation of type-specific disorders
The Three Human Types derive predominantly from differentiations in the brain structure of the limbic system and its surrounding or associated systems:
- The endorhinal cortex and multisensory association cortex
- The amygdala-cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex
- The hippocampus and the limbic association cortex
Each human Type inherits these differentiations from one of the parents and this genetic transfer determines the dominant gene. The dominant gene illustrates the origin of the genetic make up from the father or the mother. Thus the phylogenic-diversified brains (male or female) have different physiological characteristics and behaviour tendencies. The dominant gene of each human Type shows if an individual’s Type was inherited from his/her father or mother and it does not depend on the gender of the offspring. This explains why women demonstrate male behaviour and men maternal comportment.
So, although there are three Types that represent three different temperaments (A of action, B of anxiety, C of order – absolute), there are 12 characters, depending on whether they have inherited their Type from their father (ex. A – A Type from father) or his mother (ex. A – A Type from mother).
In a percentage of 99.9995%, when the birth order is first, third and fifth, the offspring demonstrates the same characteristic Type traits with its father. It is characterized by extroversion and rapid moves of the body (body action) and brings good effects in action. When the adolescent is second and forth in birth order the child has the same characteristic Type traits with its mother and it is characterized by introversion, fast thinking, and good result in management (thinking action).
The opposite happens rarely, in a percentage of 0.0005% of the cases (1 in 2,000).
Twin studies showed that only in 0.001% (1 in 1,000) the twins are identical and have the same personality Type, the same proneness to movements, the same behaviour tendencies and the same appearance.
For example, if the father is of an A Type and the mother of a B Type, then the child to be born has the following possibilities:
- Either it will be an A Type from father (it will have inherited the Type from its father),
- Or it will be a B Type from mother (it will have inherited the Type from its mother).
In no case will it be a C Type, because none of the two parents belongs to this Type.
The dominant gene, inheritance, does not only explain us from which of our two parents we have inherited our Type, but it also informs us of our predisposition to specific diseases. We have the same sensitivity to diseases ONLY with the parent we have inherited our Type. If we are, for example, a C Type from mother, we and our mother have the same sensitivity to display the same health issues.
The dominant gene also determines how we manage our lives and relationships. When we have inherited our father’s dominant gene, the masculine element in our behaviour, our actions and our reactions, it is almost certain that, regardless of our Type, we tend to express ourselves in a more abrupt and irritable way. Our characteristics are extroversion, irritability and lack of diplomacy. When we have inherited our mother’s dominant gene, we generally express in a milder and sweet way. We are constantly trying to explain with speech, we are more introverted and with ease in dialogue and diplomacy.
|Male and female dominant gene traits|
|Spontaneous movement||Hesitant movement|
|Jitters in movement||Indolence in movement|
|Fast body movement||Slow body movement|
|Laconic, concision in speech||Verbosity, speech analysis|
|When stressed reacts explosively without dialogue||When stressed stays put and gets lost in dialogue|
|Restiveness and impulsivity without thought control||Nervousness and intense dialogue with a lot of thought control|
|Avoids over thinking because he feels tortured||Stays into thoughts and tortures himself|
|Transforms thought into action||Transforms action into thought|
D. Total Hormonal Disorder
Dr. Paschalidis also introduced the Scale of Total Hormonal Disorder (Global Assessment of Stress Response), which is the degree of stress level in an individual’s body and relates to both the physical and the psycho-mental state of the organism.
The scale of The Total Hormonal Disorder represents:
- The level of emotional and physical disorder
- The biochemical and patho-physiological alterations in the three formations of the limbic system through the synaptic plasticity of the brain
- The alarm signals in the nerve cells of the intestine in stressful situations
- The degree of the total function (physical and emotional) of the body
- The plasticity of the brain (i.e. its capacity to change at a neural level), which explains the improvement in the way of thinking, following the reduction of the level of the Total Hormonal Disorder Index. Thus Type-specific regions of the brain start to function efficiently again.
Our brain perceives stress and our reaction is determined by it and affects the function of the brain itself and therefore the whole body.
The scale measuring THD is from 1 to 100. The higher the index on the scale is the more serious the health problems. This grade number is very important as it determines the psychological and physical health of the person.
In children the upper physiological disorder on the scale is 7-10 and up to 18 years it can reach 17-20. In adults, the body works normally and there is no physical problem when the disorder is maintained from 24-28.
From 30-40, the body starts to malfunction, but it does not present any obvious problems.
From 40 to 43, the body suffers from inflammation, cysts, fistulas and cyst pimples, and inflammation, stretch marks and hemorrhoids in the intestine.
Around 43-45 polyps, lipomas, varicocele, stretch marks, nodes, adenomas, fibroids and female fibroids are developed, which as the disturbance increases, they multiply and grow.
Over 50, and depending on the Type of the individual and the particular sensibilities he displays, the situation becomes more explosive.
Above 51, the heart is disturbed with each Type exhibiting different sensitivities: in A Type extra tachycardia, in B Type chronic atrial fibrillation and in C Type chronic arrhythmias, bradycardias.
Over 54, the brain cannot separate happiness from unhappiness. Eventually, the happy events of life are likely to have negative consequences, as well as the sad ones.
Over 60, and when the disorder persists at these high levels for more than 4 months, cancer begins to develop.
Over 64 cancer and autoimmune diseases can be diagnosed by classical medical tests.
At 75, metastasis occurs.
More than 80 a second metastasis appears.
Over 90, the body is so weakened that it is very difficult to recover.
Hormonal Disorder rises from continuing troubles and ongoing stress when we do not eliminate it. When tension becomes a lasting state, we do not allow our body to calm down and balance. Then, the disorder gradually rises and we are exposed to severe disease risk.
George Paschalidis explains how we can all control the functioning of our brain, so that our thought does not interfere with its operation but to support it, in order to sustain itself and our body.
E. Human Types and nutritional needs
According to the Tri-Anthropo-Type Paschalidis Model, each human Type has different nutritional needs that are genetically determined by the differentiation in the way each Type assimilates specific bio-metals and Vitamins which play an important role in synaptic plasticity of the brain. Each Type has distinct needs for specific bio-metals and these are manganese, magnesium and copper for A Type, B Type and C Type, respectively.
A Type lacks a key element and this deficiency impairs the assimilation of manganese in the body. As a result, the brain is confused, blocks and provides wrong directions for the administration of iron in the body. Due to this dysfunction A Type desires to consume foods containing iron. Steep fluctuations of iron are responsible for brain diseases, dryness of the skin and the internal organs, while overloading the body with iron results in liver cirrhosis and pulmonary infections.
B Type lacks a key element and this deficiency impairs the assimilation of magnesium in the body. As a result, the brain is confused, blocks and provides wrong directions for the administration of Vitamins D and B12 as well as the Omega 3 fatty acids, which are linked to the increase of blood viciousness, resulting in thrombophilia. Due to this dysfunction B Type desires to consume foods containing Vitamin D, which is accumulated in the colon, causes swelling and loss of colon’s elasticity and develops varicosity and spastic colitis.
C Type lacks a key element. Such lack impairs the assimilation of copper in the body. As a result, the brain becomes confused, blocks and provides wrong directions for the administration of Vitamin C, which is accumulated in the blood vessels. Due to this dysfunction C Type desires to consume foods containing Vitamin C, so C Type develops calcification of the blood vessels and the left ventricle.
George Paschalidis has been researching and discussing the connection between the brain and the gut, since 2002. Both systems activate common neurological, hormonal and immunological functions and he referred to the intestine and the bacterial flora as “the second brain”.
A research of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) on human intestinal flora was published in May 2011. According to the research, the gastrointestinal tract is different in every person, but the number and type of bacteria inhabiting it is categorised only in three perfectly distinct groups of bacteria, which they call enterotypes. Each of the three enterotypes is related to the level variations of one of the three genera of intestinal bacteria. Bacteroids, Prevotella and Ruminococcus. These can now be classified into only three distinct groups, the enterotypes:
- Enterotype 1 with higher levels of Bacteroids
- Enterotype 2 with higher levels of Prevotella
- Enterotype 2 with higher levels of Ruminococcus
There is an absolute identification of the three Bacteria communities in the human gastrointestinal system with the three Types of human in the Tri-Anthropo-Type Paschalidis Model. Specifically, A Type corresponds to enterotype 1, B Type to enterotype 2, and C Type to enterotype 3.
The two brains are almost identical; they consist of the same cells, the same principles of operation and the same receptors. They continuously influence each other. It is important that both of these brains function optimally. The intestinal type, the brain-intestine connection and the increase of the Total Hormonal Disruption affect the assimilation of biometals that are essential for the function of the synapses. The understanding of the neuronal synapses functioning and the determination of the Total Hormonal Disruption Index can contribute to disease prevention.
Recent scientific research findings indicate that there is a correlation between biometal assimilation and enterotype of each human Type. Alterations in the concentration of neurotransmitters and biometals after stress lead to the manifestation of physical and mental disorders. This corresponds to an increase in the Total Hormone Disorder index.
The new knowledge of the three human Types clearly explains the function of the human brain. The discovery of individual differences in the cerebral function is the key for health and wellness.
Brain function integrates information coming from external stimuli to a cellular level, in order for homeostasis to function optimally.
Recurring, repetitive thoughts mobilize mechanisms, which mobilize “danger-signaling” mechanisms that are experienced as stress, trigger a combined modification of the synapses in specific regions of the limbic system of the brain and they obstruct the transmission of trace elements that carry the information and affect the assimilation of the corresponding liquid metals and Vitamins in the body.
The transmission of information through the brain, which is mediated by the activity of neuro-transmitting systems and neuronal synapses, is hampered by the persistent thoughts and causes the production of neuromodulators from the peripheral organs as liver, suprarenal glands, gonads and pancreas that lead to dysfunction and disease.
The harmonious and calm thought of happiness frees the brain and heals the body. Stressful thoughts of unhappy people jam the brain and sicken the body.
According to the Tri-Anthropo-Type Paschalidis Model, each of the three human Types has a propensity for specific disorders and diseases that are determined by the functionality of the Type-specific brain areas, the corresponding enterotype and the different assimilation of metals and elements.
It has been found that:
A Type individuals suffer from the following diseases: Alzheimer’s, temporal epilepsy, temporal stroke, cold-blooded thyroid, multiple sclerosis with rapid deterioration and onset of paraplegia, schizophrenia with hallucinations, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and pneumonia.
B Type individuals suffer Parkinson’s, stuttering, dysarthria, hyper-hypothyroid goiter, bronchitis, spastic bronchitis, ischemic stroke, aneurysms, thrombosis, anxiety disorders, depression, causalgia (heartburn) and dystonia & diabetes type II of dietary cause. Other disorders occurring to B Type individuals are rheumatoid lupus erythematosus, temporarily lapses, multiple sclerosis with leg tremor and instability (relapsing-remitting type), vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, paramorphotic rheumatic arthritis in all members of the body, polymyalgia rheumatic and ankylosing spondylitis. These are all disorders proven to be related to structural and functional disorders of the amygdala and disorders of the metabolism of manganese. B Type people develop crystals in their knees because their pelvis tilts backwards and forces their knees to turn inwards, causing a swinging motion when they are walking. The formation of crystals in the knees combined with swinging causes great damage at the knees, which are operated on by performing arthroplastic surgery.
C Type individuals suffer from ascouperose, mania, manic depression, diabetes type I, pancreatitis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, vascular multi-infarct dementia, allergic chronic asthma, multiple sclerosis (secondary progressing type which is reversible and manifested by spasticity and non-motor control in the legs and balance weakness) and multiple regional haemorrhagic strokes (with reversible symptoms, unlike A Type that these symptoms are not reversible). Scientific data documents that structural and functional disorders of the hippocampus and disorders of the metabolism of copper are the pathogenetic mechanisms of the diseases above. Other disorders of this human Type are paramorphotic osteoarthritis and systematic lupus erythematosus with rapid evolving organ damage and osteopenia, which, when it occurs in the vessels of the ear, Meniere syndrome occurs. The lymph and arterial calcification that occurs in C Type individuals, results in lack of elasticity in fast motion, following by fluid retention in the joints that causes deforming osteoarthritis, and then surgery is necessary, for the scraping of the joints.
|Correlation of Human Types with Diseases|
|A Type||B Type||C Type|
|Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (skin)||Rheumatoid lupus erythematosus||Systemic lupus erythematosus|
|Alzheimer’s Disease||Korsakov Syndrome Temporary lapses||Vascular Dementia|
|Schizophrenia, Hallucinations||Depression||Bipolar disorder|
|Pneumonia||Spastic Bronchitis||Allergic bronchitis / asthma|
|Multiple sclerosis progressive type||Atypical Multiple sclerosis||Multiple sclerosis Secondary progressive type|
|Diabetes type II (neurological cause)||Diabetes type II (dietary cause)||Diabetes type I|
|Temporal haemorrhagic stroke (fatal or nonreversible)||Ischemic stroke||Multiple regional haemorrhagic strokes (reversible)|
|Inflammation in the joints Osteoarthritis||Rheumatoid arthritis Ankylosing Spondylitis||Osteoarthritis paramorphotic|
H. The prospects of discovery
The Three Human Personality Type Model, as a neurobiological and cognitive model, helps us realize that when each person is approached, according to his/her personality Type, enterotype and corresponding nutritional type, restoration of the balance of the synaptic plasticity of the brain and uncovering of the biological mechanisms by which personality and health are interconnected can be achieved.
The Three Human Personality Type Model gives us new insights on personality, heredity and health parameters and reveals markers for unique traits that are involved in diagnosis and personalized treatment. Such markers are the size of some brain parts, the heart rate, the enterotype and the personality characteristics of each Type, which are all indicators of behaviour, emotion and thought as a reaction to stress.
Cooperation with research centres helps detection of these markers.
This model elucidates the way in which genetically determined neurobiological phenotypes of the three human Types are associated with the subtype, the severity and the course of the disorders, resulting in developing personalized therapy regimens that are derived from the neurobiological research.
George Paschalidis has provided a unique opportunity to explore the interaction of the genes, the brain, and the behaviour within a translational research framework.
In addition to improving the genetic and neurobiological pathways of our understanding of the Three Human Personality Type Model that determine the individual differences in complex behavioural traits at the level of brain circuit function, the Model will lead to the discovery of novel cell sources and other novel therapeutic methods, targeting always at the Human Type of every individual.
G. Paschalidis’ New Knowledge of the Three Human Types opens new horizons and constitutes the greatest discovery in the field of science, since it represents the model of a hitherto Unique, Multi-dimensional Health Program. This model assists in achieving self-awareness, developing an understanding of others and providing individualized treatment in the case of illnesses.
The Three Human Personality Type Model contributes to:
- The identification of the corresponding brain regions that are engaged during cognitive-affective tasks of the three Types, and determine individual differences in emotion, motivation, cognition and behaviour.
- The detection of the genetic and biological factors that contribute to human individual differences.
- The explanation of the impact of the stress on brain activity and body function.
- The discovery of mechanisms, biomarkers and novel treatment approaches of nervous and other body systems disorders.
- The translational and multidisciplinary approach to research and therapeutic interventions.
- The distinction or identification of individuality in the function of human body apart from blood groups, finger prints, iris analysis and DNA bar codes and enterotypes, that were discovered recently (2011).
Never before in human history or culture has this information been recorded. This is a unique phenomenon destined to affect modern Medicine in a catalytic and regenerative way.
George Paschalidis’ translational research, the Three Human Personality Type Model and the prospects it opens, are a unique key and a challenge for scientists and researchers who will collaborate with the researcher G. Paschalidis, in order to forward scientific research and strengthen the effectiveness of treatment, detection and prevention methods.
Every impairment in the human body can be preventable and curable when special formulations, according to their human Type are incorporated into the patient’s treatments. By using bio metallic drugs of each human Type, we can strengthen the immune system and maintain cell homeostasis. As a result, diseases can be improved and even be cured. Each drug will be specifically formulated for each patient, according to his/her human Type. Paschalidis is in the procedure to grand a patent.
According to G. Paschalidis, when a combination of specific metals and Vitamins is given to a human, depending on his human personality Type and therefore to his brain function and nutritional type, he will improve his behaviour and the way he / she cope with the events of the day Life and health. By using suitable drugs, which Mr. Paschalidis has already studied and will soon be produced in appropriate laboratories.
When an A Type is provided with the specific compound of minerals and Vitamins, including manganese, he is not only led to an improvement in the extreme behaviour of his Type, which is the panic reaction to stress, but it allows him to present the good side of A Type’s behaviour, which is the calm action.
When a B Type is provided with the specific compound of minerals and Vitamins, including magnesium, his extreme behaviour as the response to stress, which is anxiety and excessive thought is improved. As a result, B Type increases activity and reduces his constantly repetitive thinking.
When a C Type is provided with the specific compound of metals and Vitamins, including copper, his extreme behaviour, which is obsession and passion, improves.
|Correlations between Personality Traits, Human Types, Diseases and Biomarkers|
|Personality traits||Type||Disease tendency||Biomarkers:
1. Brain structure